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Title: Importation of magnifera indica (L) (mango) fruit from Ghana into United States: a qualitative, pathway-initiated risk assessment
Authors: Boateng, B. A.
Braimah, H.
Glover-Amengor, M.
Osei-Sarfo, A.
Woode, R.
Robertson, S.
Takeuchi, Y.
Keywords: Ghana;Risk assessment;Mangoes;Magnifera indica
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Abstract: This risk assessment examined the risks associated with the importation of mango (Mangifera indica (L.)) into the United States. Information on pests associated with Mangifera indica in Ghana and neighboring countries revealed that sixteeen quarantine pests could potentially be introduced into the United States via this pathway. The quarantine pests likely to follow the pathway were all insects Sternochetus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) Udinia catori (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Udinia farquharsoni (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) Udinia pattersoni Hanford (Hemiptera: Coccidae) lcerya aegyptiaca (Douglas) (Hemiptera: Margarotididae) Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Margarotididae) Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) The quarantine pests were analyzed qualitatively based on international principles and internal guidelines as described in the PPQ Guidelines for Pathway-Initiated Pest Risk Assessments, Version 5.02 (USDA APHIS, 2000). This document examined pest biology in the context of consequences of introduction and likelihood of introduction. These elements,were used to estimate the Pest Risk Potential. All of these pests pose phytosanitary risks to American agriculture. Port-of-entry inspections, as a sole mitigative measure, are considered insufficient to safeguard U.S. agriculture from all of these pests, and additional phytosanitary measures are necessary to reduce risks to acceptable levels
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